New Lithium-Extraction Technology Attracts Investors. But Is It Viable?

Lithium is a key element of rechargeable batteries, and growing home provide is seen as an necessary step in a broad push for the U.S. to transition to different vitality sources. In February, the Biden administration unveiled plans to speculate $2.9 billion to spice up manufacturing of superior batteries and strengthen the battery provide chain within the U.S., together with the event of home provides of lithium. Last month President Biden additionally invoked the Defense Protection Act to extend manufacturing of battery metals.

But newer, still-experimental lithium manufacturing and extraction strategies that would assist improve provides, whereas attracting buyers for his or her potential to hurry up manufacturing and cut back the environmental affect in contrast with most present lithium-extraction strategies, are to date unproven at massive scale.

Current strategies of lithium manufacturing largely contain extracting the light-weight metallic from onerous rock or pumping the salty brines that include lithium out of the bottom into huge ponds the place evaporation separates it from different components. Mining firms in Chile have used this environmentally hazardous observe for many years. It takes about 18 months to 2 years to supply lithium from a brine utilizing ponds and several other years to construct such initiatives.

Promising effectivity

The new strategies, recognized collectively as direct lithium extraction, or DLE, have been proven to be quicker than conventional strategies and extra environment friendly. While conventional strategies yield about 40% to 50% of the lithium current in a mined useful resource, processes utilizing DLE can extract 75% to 90%, firms behind the applied sciences say. Many DLE applied sciences use a chemical course of or different strategies to isolate lithium.

That means extra lithium could be produced and made commercially out there extra rapidly—at a time when demand for lithium is sending costs to all-time highs, whereas analysts are projecting shortages that would gradual manufacturing of electrical automobiles.

Containers of lithium brine in a Lilac Solutions warehouse in Oakland, Calif.


Christie Hemm Klok for The Wall Street Journal

“We’re looking at dramatically accelerating the amount of time it takes to bring a project online,” says David Snydacker, chief govt of Lilac Solutions, an Oakland, Calif., startup that has developed a DLE know-how. Projects that after would have taken seven to 10 years to begin producing will be capable to produce in about 4 years utilizing Lilac’s DLE strategies, Mr. Snydacker says.

Lilac raised $150 million in late 2021 from buyers akin to BMW AG’s enterprise fund and

T. Rowe Price Associates Inc.

Backed by

Bill Gates’s

Breakthrough Energy Ventures, Lilac is working with Australian firms to extract lithium from salty brines at California’s Salton Sea in addition to in Argentina. One of the businesses partnering with Lilac not too long ago introduced a preliminary settlement to produce

Ford Motor Co.

with lithium.

Another DLE know-how innovator,

Standard Lithium Ltd.

, primarily based in Vancouver, British Columbia, mentioned in December that it raised $100 million from a unit of Koch Industries Inc. Standard is working with a German chemical firm on a lithium-extraction undertaking in Arkansas that it says will profit from a proprietary DLE course of. Skeptics betting on its shares to fall say that the method doesn’t work and that the corporate is delayed. Standard has referred to as these allegations false and deceptive.

Prospecting in Nevada

In Nevada, the place the bottom is wealthy with lithium brines, a wave of lithium prospectors have taken out claims for potential initiatives prior to now yr. Many typical lithium-extraction efforts, nonetheless, face opposition from environmentalists and allowing delays.

DLE is “going to be the game-changer,” says

Cortney Luxford,

fluid minerals program supervisor for Nevada’s Division of Minerals. “If you can get more refined lithium to market in weeks or days, that changes the economics of companies.”

The query is whether or not DLE is able to make a serious distinction. Many DLE applied sciences that work properly in a laboratory usually run into hassle within the area, specialists say. Many of the applied sciences would probably nonetheless require massive quantities of water and energy to run the gadgets on a big scale.

“Right now, it’s still very theoretical,” says

Chris Berry,

founding father of House Mountain Partners LLC, an adviser to battery-metals firms and buyers.

DLE is at present being commercially used solely by the Philadelphia-based lithium miner and processor

Livent Corp.

, alongside its different brine-extraction processes in Argentina, and by firms in China. The DLE element of Livent’s Argentina undertaking is small and isn’t producing lithium at a scale that might point out a technological breakthrough, analysts say. And specialists say there isn’t sufficient transparency in regards to the DLE know-how being utilized in China to know the way profitable it’s.

Lilac Solutions chemist Maddie Cooke prepares samples to check how a lot lithium is within the brine the corporate has acquired.


Christie Hemm Klok for The Wall Street Journal

Lilac’s Mr. Snydacker says his firm has performed a profitable large-scale pilot program at an undisclosed location within the U.S. The firm says it’s going to use the $150 million it raised final October to extend manufacturing, broaden its workforce and deploy its know-how. It’s engaged on initiatives in Nevada and North Dakota along with the initiatives in California and Argentina.

The problem of scale

North Carolina’s

Albemarle Corp.

, the world’s largest lithium producer, has evaluated a spread of DLE strategies and corporations and says it’s piloting essentially the most promising candidates at chosen lithium sources. Glen Merfeld, chief know-how officer, says there’s potential to extend lithium manufacturing with DLE, however a variety of elements require consideration, such because the economics of a undertaking and sustainability points.

“It could look terrific in a beaker,” Mr. Merfeld says. “It could look great in even a small pilot. But to really be viable and competitive, you’ve got to get it to the large scales.”

The strategy highway to Albemarle’s lithium evaporation ponds at its facility in Silver Peak, Nev. It’s the one lively lithium mine within the U.S.


ernest scheyder/Reuters

He says the corporate plans to broaden its mine in Silver Peak, Nev., which makes use of conventional strategies and is the one lively lithium mine within the U.S.

EnergyX, a privately held firm primarily based in Austin, Texas, that seeks to supply lithium utilizing membranes in its DLE extraction course of, says its methodology at present can extract as a lot as 90% of the lithium in brines. The firm, which has raised $20 million from buyers together with the University of Texas, has explored working in Bolivia, a lithium-rich nation whose authorities has lengthy opposed non-public mining operations.

But EnergyX’s membrane doesn’t filter out salt and another impurities in brines, which implies different strategies—akin to ponds—are nonetheless required to purify the lithium, based on folks acquainted with the know-how.

EnergyX CEO

Teague Egan

mentioned in an electronic mail to reporters that his firm’s preliminary know-how will work alongside present manufacturing strategies like ponds, however that future iterations received’t want them. The firm is at present making an attempt to boost extra money from buyers, based on folks acquainted with its plans.

“Lithium and battery materials are absolutely essential,” Mr. Egan mentioned in his electronic mail. “Companies are actively working really hard towards finding workable, sustainable solutions for the sector.”

Mr. Patterson in Washington and Mr. Ramkumar in New York are reporters for The Wall Street Journal. They could be reached at and

Lithium costs are rising as demand for the important thing ingredient in electrical automobile batteries grows, amid a broader push to maneuver away from oil and gasoline. But extraction of the metallic is time consuming and doubtlessly dangerous to the atmosphere, and plans to supply extra have prompted protests. Photo: STR/Getty Images, Oliver Bunic/AFP/Getty Images

Corrections & Amplifications
EnergyX relies in Austin, Texas. An earlier model of this text incorrectly mentioned the corporate was primarily based in Houston. (Corrected on April 21.)

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